The Best Thermal Baths on The Costa Brava

The Costa Brava which means ”Wild Coast” or “Rough Coast” is a coastal region of Catalonia in north-eastern Spain. Costa Brava stretches from the town of Blanes (which is 60 km northeast of Barcelona) to the French border. There are three counties in Costa Brava- Alt Empordà, Baix Empordà and Selva. All of them are a part of the province of Girona.To reach Costa Brava, you need to take a flight to the Girona airport. Alternatively you may reach the Barcelona airport in Spain which is 92 KMs away from Costa Brava, and then travel by road. Pinar Del Mar, Planamar, Park Hotel San Jorge & Spa, Hostal Alba and many other comfortable hotels are available on this land to pamper you. After checking in to your designated hotel, you may think about taking a thermal bath to relax your tired muscles.Before choosing the best thermal bath center for you, let’s have a look at the available options:-


From the times when the Roman Empire ruled this region, the people of the Costa Brava have been exploring the region’s many medicinal mineral waters and hot baths. It is believed that this water possess relaxing and healing qualities. In the modern times, these thermal baths of the area offer the visitors some of the best facilities. The therapeutic effects of taking a bath in these thermal baths are manifold.1) Balneari Termes Orion- Hotel Balneari Termes Orion offers maximum relaxation through the thermal bath in their facility. They have recently refurbished their luxurious spa to ensure that their clients receive the maximum benefits of these treatments.At 45 degrees Celsius, the water which emerges from the spring is ideal for treatments of aches and pains. There are several kinds if treatments offered in this luxurious natural spring. This bath is surrounded by natural mountains, woodlands and meadows to ensure that the patient receives the maximum benefit from the treatment.2) Balneari Vichy Catalan- This spa contains the purest Vichy Catalan water. The trained masseurs and therapists here provide the customers with a lot of services like chiromassage, inhalations, massage shower, foot-reflexology, paraffin baths, parafango, steam bath and sauna bath. There is a swimming pool which contains the same medicinal water which can be used by the customers for their treatments.Balneari Vichy Catalan Spa will allow you to completely unwind and become ache and pain-free before you leave the place.3) Peralada Spa- This place uses a unique methodology of treatment. They use the wine extracts to help improve their customer’s health and wellbeing. The free radicals present in the wine extracts help in the production of collagen fibres and elastin and it in turn helps in the formation of red blood cells in the blood. The blood circulation is improved, and the body’s immunity increases manifolds.


This luxury spa is located on the bank of a lake in Peralada, Girona. The crystal clear water of the lake is natural and possesses therapeutic properties. There is a steam room to relax your tired muscles and a Jacuzzi to bring you back to life. There are other treatments like heated marble treatment and a barrel shower. A sauna bath will help you to remove the toxins from your body and a thermal circuit around its swimming pools can be used for different kinds of treatments. There is an exclusive “Gran Claustro” meant for the most prestigious clients of the spa.Apart from Costa Brava, the nearby town of La Garriga also has many natural springs and spas for therapeutic purposes. So go ahead and explore. You will definitely have a very relaxing vacation.

What Is UX Design?

User Experience is a conglomeration of tasks focused on optimization of a product for effective and enjoyable use. User Experience Design is the process of development and improvement of quality interaction between a user and all facets of a company.U ser Experience Design is responsible for being hands-on with the process of research, testing, development, content, and prototyping to test for quality results. User Experience Design is, in theory, a non-digital (cognitive science) practice but used and defined predominantly by digital industries.

Introduction to UX Planning
The easiest way to approach the planning phase for UX projects is to determine the approach you think ought to be taken for a project, then examine the constraints and amend the approach based on these constraints. This should enable you to determine budgets and timescales if they weren’t given to you by your potential client beforehand. UX projects that are well planned are easier to execute and offer a higher chance of succeeding than those that are managed on an ad-hoc basis For designers working in the ever-changing field of user experience, it’s always important to consider the fundamental principles of design. At many levels, the nature of the work that we do constantly shifts and evolves-whether we’re designing for new technologies or different contexts, ranging from apps for personal use to cross-channel experiences. When we’re called upon to solve design problems that we haven’t solved before, design principles provide a sound basis for devising innovative solutions. All of these trends have required us to look at design afresh and come up with new interaction models, design patterns, and standards-many of which are still evolving.

Visual design trends shift as well-sometimes for the better; sometimes not. For example, in the recent past, we saw the prevalent use of small, light-gray fonts that were both too small and too low contrast for good readability-for almost anybody, not just those with serious visual deficits. Now we’re seeing bigger fonts-solving that readability problem. UX Design Principles course provides foundational level skills for those interested or working in user experience design. The workshop covers aspects of designing for web, apps, and mobile. This UX workshop is suitable for designers, business analysts, product managers, and developers. No UX or design previous experience is required. It serves as the foundation for the UX Classes as well as the UX Certificate program at American Graphics Institute.

What is UI Design?
User Interface Design is its complement, the look and feel, the presentation and interactivity of a product. But like UX, it is easily and often confused by the industries that employ UI Designers. User interface design (UID) or user interface engineering is the design of websites, computers, appliances, machines, mobile communication devices, and software applications with the focus on the user’s experience and interaction. UI Design is closer to what we refer to as graphic design, though the responsibilities are somewhat more complex. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) integrates concepts and methods from computer science, design, and psychology to build interfaces that are accessible, easy to use, and efficient. There are three factors that should be considered for the design of a successful user interface; development factors, visibility factors and acceptance factors. Development factors help by improving visual communication. These include: platform constraints, toolkits and component libraries, support for rapid prototyping, and customizability. Visibility factors take into account human factors and express a strong visual identity. These include human abilities, product identity, clear conceptual model, and multiple representations. Included as acceptance factors are an installed base, corporate politics, international markets, and documentation and training. There are three fundamental principles involved in the use of the visible language.

Do’s and Don’ts of UI and UX Design
User experience online is very similar to the user experience you get when going to a grocery store. You want a pleasant time without any hassle. You want to be able to navigate the store quickly, get what you need right away, head to the checkout line without a wait, and get back home. You don’t want to deal with a slow cashier, items not where they should be or out of stock, hostile employees, or a crammed parking lot. You simply want what you came for (groceries) and be on your way. Stores understand this and have spent a considerable amount of time and money to help you navigate the store easier, make sure items you want are in stock, and to provide fast and friendly checkout lines. It may seem a bit corny to think of UX design in terms of going to your local grocery store, but the experiences are similar. Our customers are visitors to the sites we create, and the groceries are the content in which they came to the site for. For those of us who go to the store, it’s easy for us to pinpoint things that irritate us or think should be improved. However, when it comes to our own designs and user interfaces and the creation of them, we may not be able to point out these irritants ahead of time before users do. We can fix this by taking a step back and look for these weak points in our design, so that we don’t cause them unnecessary frustration and keep them on our site so they can get to the content they were looking for. To help us designers step back and look at our designs and user interfaces from the eyes of the visitor, let’s run through some do’s and don’ts to look out for so we can help them get exactly what they came for without irritation or a bad UX.

1. DO: Provide a similar experience regardless of the device Visitors are coming to your site using many different types of devices. They can visit your site on their desktop or laptop, tablet, phone, music player, game console, or even their watches. A big part of user experience design is ensuring that no matter how the visitor sees your site, they are getting the same experience they would if they were to visit from another device. This means that if a visitor is seeing your site on their phone, they should still be able to find everything they need without trouble just like they would if they were viewing your site on their desktop at home. A seamless experience across all of your devices helps keep your users on your site regardless of the device they are using.

2. DO: Provide instantly recognizable and easy-to-use navigation The key to providing a pleasant user experience for users is to understand that they are in search of content. They want information that you are providing on your site. The way they get there is by using your site’s navigation to quickly get to the content they are looking for. Provide a user-friendly navigation system that is easy to recognize and easy to use. Design your navigation in a way that gets visitors where they want to go with the least amount of clicks as possible while still being easy to scan and locate where they need to go.

3. DON’T: Letting the design of the site hinder the site’s readability The design of a site or user interface should never interfere with the user’s ability to consume the content on the screen. This includes having busy backgrounds behind content or poor color schemes that hinder the site’s readability. Busy backgrounds cause a distraction and take attention away from the content, even more so if the busy background is directly underneath the content. In addition, be careful not to use color schemes that decrease the contrast of the typography on the screen (i.e. light gray type of a white background). Focus on the typography of your site to ensure issues such as line length, line height, kerning, and font choice doesn’t pose issues for readability.

4. DON’T: Hindering a visitor’s ability to scan the screen As I mentioned above, users and visitors alike often scan the screen quickly before settling in to read any one particular thing with focus. Users often scan for visual cues such as headings, pictures, buttons, and blocks to know where they should focus their attention. If you start removing these items, it makes it hard for users to scan your content to find what they are looking for. Using appropriate headings that are easily seen, pictures to illustrate points, buttons for navigation, and blocks of content that are unique or important help users scan the screen to find what they need.

Successful Design Management for the 6 Stages of Design of Infrastructure and Building Projects

Design Management

Design Management seeks to establish project management practices that are primarily focused on enhancing the design process. For Infrastructure and Building projects the successful implementation of Design Management throughout the entire Project Life Cycle can represent the difference between a superior outcome for the project in terms of Quality, Timing, Cost and Value or failure, given the complexity of Infrastructure and Building projects in today’s environment.

Design Management is however primarily focused on the Design Process within the project framework and as such is only a part of the overall Project Management of a project, albeit a critical part of the project.

If you are going to be a successful Design Manager and achieve superior outcomes for both your clients and your own business, you cannot manage design haphazardly and expect consistent results. You must manage design projects by undertaking a proven stage by stage process. This brief article outlines those stage by stage processes and gives the Design Manager a guide to successfully design managing Infrastructure and Building projects. The Design Management role is considered in this article in the context of an in-house or consultant client side Design Manager and not a Design Manager within the design team itself. It is also on the basis of a fully documented Design and Construct only contract.

Stage 1: Early Design Management Involvement-Statement of Need

The output for this stage will be a Design Report that will directly feed into the Client’s Statement of Need and overall Business Case.

Early involvement to the Project Life Cycle is important but this may need to be reinforced with the Client to appreciate and understand the benefits this will provide. There are several key tasks during this stage:

1.1 Obtaining and Assessing all the available key design Information

  • Collation of all available data and information
  • Visit the site
  • Review contract as related to design aspects
  • Review the level of the design that has been prepared to date
  • Evaluate information and highlight critical issues
  • Review findings with Client
  • Assess the team capability requirements and resourcing
  • Assess any spend on fees required at this stage
  • Engage consultant as required to provide required technical and project inputs to assist the preparation of the design report.

1.2 Design Risk Review

  • Identify design risks and create a Design Risk Register
  • Identify any Safety in Design issues
  • Analyse and provide suggestions for risk mitigation for ongoing stages
  • 1.3 Design Report Input to Statement of Need
  • Prepare draft of design report input into the Statement of Need report and review with Client
  • Prepare final Design Report component into the Statement of Need report

Stage 2: Design Management during the Outline Design Stage

With the Statement of Need or Business Case formally approved for the project to proceed, the next step is to get the Outline Design Stage going.This stage involves clearly defining the Client requirements and project needs so as to form a sound foundation for the design process to proceed and is the right time to engage consultants and set up the formal Design Management process. The following are the key tasks in this stage:

2.1 Define Client design requirements and project design needs

  • Gather all available and updated project data from the Client.
  • Identify any gaps in the information provided.
  • Meet with the Client to review the information provided and identify additional information required.
  • 2.2 Engage Design Consultants
  • Engage all the key consultants that are required to develop the Functional Design Brief. It is critical that the consultant’s scope of work is clear for the level of input required and clearly noted in their Contract.

2.3 Prepare Functional Design Brief

  • Manage and coordinate the consultant team to deliver the Functional Design Brief that will respond to and record all the client requirements and needs and form the basis to proceed for all disciplines.
  • The Functional Brief will generally be supported by Concept design sketches that provide an outline of the proposed design.

2.4 Prepare the Design Management Plan (DMP)

The DMP provides the roadmap for the way the design will be managed and needs to be prepared at this stage of the design process for best results. The DMP is a component of the Project Management Plan prepared by the Project Manager.

The key Design headings in a DMP are as follows:

  • Introduction
  • Project Overview
  • Objectives
  • Process and related procedures
  • Status
  • Documentation & Deliverables Schedule
  • Value Engineering
  • Reviews
  • Change Management
  • Independent Third Party Checks, Permits
  • Quality Management
  • Client Approvals
  • Close Out & As Built Record

2.5 Outline Cost Plan

  • Manage and coordinate the development of the Outline Cost Plan with the Quantity Surveyor, with input from all the relevant consultants.

2.6 Identify Design Risks

  • Identify Design Risks within the overall Risk Management framework.
  • Analyse and manage risks and update the Risk Register, design out risks where possible.
  • Ensure Safety in Design requirements are followed.

2.7 Value Management

  • Arrange a Value Management workshop. Value Management is a systematic review of the essential functions or performance of a project to ensure that best value for money is achieved. It takes an overall view of the function of the project as well as capital and recurrent costs.
  • Prepare a Value Management Report and implement recommendations.

2.8 Project Approvals

  • Outline and define the planning approval process and coordinate with the design process requirements.

Stage 3: Design Management during the Schematic Design Stage

With the Outline Design Stage formally approved for the project to proceed to the next stage, the next step is to get the Schematic Design Stage going. This stage involves developing the design across all the disciplines in response to the approved Functional Design Brief. The following are the key tasks in this stage:

3.1 Manage the Development of the SchematicDesign

  • Manage the team in developing the Schematic Design.
  • Monitor the compliance of the Schematic design with the Functional Design Brief.
  • Review Design Programme and coordinate with overall project programme.
  • Coordinate the development of the Schematic Design with the project procurement process.
  • Manage the preparation of the Schematic Design Report which contains drawings and outline specifications for all disciplines.

3.2 Schematic Design Cost Plan

  • Manage and coordinate the development of the Schematic Cost Plan with the Quantity Surveyor, with input from all the relevant consultants.
  • Identify any major design decisions to the Quantity Surveyor that could influence cost.

3.3 Identify Design Risks

  • Identify Design Risks within the overall Risk Management framework.
  • Analyse and manage risks and update the Risk Register, design out risks where possible.
  • Ensure Safety in Design requirements are followed.

3.4 Value Engineering

  • Arrange a Value Engineering Workshop, including external peer reviewers to negate any “built in” resistance to change and get a fresh perspective
  • Prepare a Value Engineering Report and present to the Client and implement approved Value Engineering recommendations within the Schematic Design Report or in the detailed design stage as appropriate.

3.5 Project Approvals

  • Review and update the planning approval process and coordinate with the design process requirements.
  • Manage the submission of any required Planning Approval Applications.

3.6 Update the DMP

  • Review and update the DMP as required catering for the current project circumstances.

Stage 4: Design Management during the Detailed Design Stage

With the Schematic Design Stage formally approved for the project to proceed to the next stage, the next step is to get the Detailed Design Stage going. This important stage involves developing the design to tender and construction across all the disciplines in response to the approved Schematic Design Report. The following are the key tasks in this stage:

4.1 Manage the Development of the Detailed Design

  • Manage the team in developing the Detailed Design ready for tender including as required coordination meetings between disciplines experiencing coordination difficulties and the exchange of progress design drawings and specification for proper inter-disciplinary coordination.
  • Manage changes and variations.
  • Monitor the compliance of the Detailed Design with the Schematic Design Report, Value Engineering recommendations and the Functional Design Brief.
  • Review Design Programme and coordinate with overall project programme
  • Coordinate the development of the Detailed Design with the project procurement process including early issue of documents to the Quantity Surveyor to start the Bill of Quantities. Any “shortcuts” in the deliverables to accommodate the tender programme need to be fully understood and agreed
  • Coordinate the inputs to the development of the Contract documents being prepared by the Project Manager
  • Consider the requirement for lead disciplines that are producing background and base drawings, such as architects on building projects, to complete these ahead of the supporting engineering disciplines, so as to allow the supporting disciplines adequate time to complete their dependent work. The team cannot realistically work effectively all in parallel to deliver all at the same time without some lag with the lead discipline. It also allows time for the lead consultant to review the documentation from the dependent disciplines. Allow adequate time in the design programme for this lag in completion and coordination.

4.2 Detailed Design Cost Plan and Pre Tender Estimate

  • Manage and coordinate the development of the Detailed Cost Plan with the Quantity Surveyor, with input from all the relevant consultants.
  • Identify any major decisions to the Quantity Surveyor.
  • Prepare for the Pre Tender Estimate (PTE).
  • Take any required action if the PTE is in excess of the Detailed Design Cost Plan.

4.3 Identify Design Risks

  • Identify any additional Design Risks within the overall Risk Management framework.
  • Analyse and manage any remaining risks and update the Risk Register, design out risks where possible
  • Ensure Safety in Design requirements are followed

4.4 Peer Review and Value Engineering

  • Arrange for the drawings and specifications that are being prepared for Bill of Quantities or that are at 90% completion to be issued for external Peer Review to review the “tender readiness” of the tender documents for each of the disciplines. This is also the time to review the consistency of the presentation of the documents across all disciplines and the adherences to project protocols such as title sheet formats, sheet sizes, drawing extents and overlaps, drawing scales, document numbering and revision notation.
  • As part of the Peer Review, Value Engineering of the detailing within the tender documentation should be undertaken at the same time to ensure the detailed design is the most efficient possible.
  • Manage the peer review responses and issue to the team to respond to the comments and incorporate the recommended and agreed comments or mark ups. Allow adequate time in the design programme for this important process.

4.5 Project Approvals

  • Review and update the planning approval process and coordinate with the design process requirements.
  • Manage the submission of any required Planning Approval Applications.
  • Obtain any required certification from the consultants.
  • Manage any required inputs to obtain the required Planning and Building approvals.

4.6 Update the DMP

  • Review and update the DMP as required to cater for the current project circumstances
  • 4.7 Tender Readiness Report
  • Prepare Tender Readiness report to the Client recommending issue to tender including any project issues or risks and the PTE.

Stage 5: Design Management during the Tender Stage

With the Detailed Design Stage Tender Readiness Report formally approved for the project to proceed to Tender, the next step is to arrange the design documents to be issued for tender. The following are the key tasks in this stage:

5.1 Prepare Design Documentation for Tender

  • Manage the team in delivering the documents as per the DMP at the required time in the required hardcopy and soft copy formats to the required locations.
  • Collate the required document transmittals.

5.2 Housekeeping

  • Take the opportunity to catch up with housekeeping of files on the server, in local drives and hardcopies.

5.3 Tender Technical Queries and Clarifications

  • Manage all incoming tender technical queries and clarifications during the tender period and arrange responses from any of the team where required.
  • Participate in any Tender clarification meetings with the contractor as requested by the Project Manager.

5.4 Addendums

  • Manage any design and documentation requirement for addendums that are required due to omissions from the Tender due to time constraints or from new Client requirements.

5.5 Tender Evaluation

  • Manage all required technical tender review and evaluation inputs from the team to allow the tender to be evaluated from a technical perspective.
  • Where required prepare a technical evaluation report and deliver to the Project Manager.
  • Participate in any negotiation meetings where technical matters require further clarification and arrange appropriate technical inputs from team.

5.6 Manage Consultants

  • Manage the finalisation of design related fees and any outstanding variations and claims.

Stage 6: Design Management during the Construction Stage

With the Tender formally awarded and on the assumption that the Project Manager will typically manage the construction phase delivery of the project, then the role of Design Manger will generally be reduced during this stage to a support role only or where required due to incomplete or ongoing design development resulting from client variations or changes made during tender negotiations. The following are some of the key tasks in this stage:

6.1 Issue Approved For Construction(AFC) documents

  • Manage the team in delivering the AFC documents as per the DMP at the required time in the required hardcopy and soft copy formats to the required locations.
  • Collate the required document transmittals

6.2 Housekeeping

  • Take the opportunity to complete the housekeeping of files on the server, in local drives and hardcopies

6.3 Outstanding Design

  • Manage the team in delivering any outstanding design due to client changes or changes resulting from tender negotiations

6.4 Manage Contractor Design Submissions

  • Subject to the complexity of the design, assist the Project Manager to manage the team in reviewing and responding to any contractor designs.

Design Management in Action

The above methodology represents a general approach for Design Managing Infrastructure and Building Project. This methodology has been applied successfully to numerous projects undetaken by the author, however as any Design Manager will know, every project is different and every design and project team is generally comprised of different team members.

The key to making the above methodology work is studying, applying and start implementing it to suit your particular project. It offers focus and a clear direction for any design for an Infrastructure or Building project to achieve a superior outcome for your Client and your own business.

Designing Fast Food Retail Interiors

There was a time when fast food was all about being fast and cheap. It was a new enough concept and so convenient. So convenient in fact that fast food retailers built their entire outlet, buying experience, service levels and food standards to satisfy the ‘fast’ and ‘cheap’ needs of customers. And it worked! Fast forward a few years and improved education about nutrition, the need to eat healthy meals and also the vast amount of competition in the market has meant that fast food chains have to completely change their approach to adapt to the new needs of the 21st century consumer.

The focus is now on delivering a stronger brand to reach a broader base of customers that they want to linger around and make the outlet part of their weekly or daily routine. So, what does the new brand focus require? Well it needs to demonstrate freshness, good quality ingredients, an improved buying experience, a nicer seating ambience, better comfort, more visibility of food preparation areas and improved conveniences.

While the ingredients and the quality of food are obviously a key and vital component of the brand, this article focuses on the architectural and interior design of the outlet and how the various elements of the interior design impact the brand and therefore elevate the customer experience for modern fast food chains.

Before we consider the design of fast food chains, it is worth looking at how luxury goods retailers and vehicle showrooms have approached outlet or store design to deliver their brand. Luxury brands for example have always designed stores to captivate distinct segments of the market, yet maintained a sense of delivering individuality. Luxury stores almost distinctly appear to be lacking in the amount of merchandise that is displayed and in some cases maintain plain colours and simple soft furnishings to make customers feel at ease. Vehicle showrooms are an established example for retailing as they have mastered the buying and ongoing servicing needs of customers in a single outlet. The way that showrooms are designed, allows vehicle manufacturers to provide an environment which allows them to manage the flow or ‘journey’ from buying a new car, arranging finance, servicing and shopping for parts, while having pleasant and well stocked waiting areas. Both are examples of building outlets that manage distinct needs, encourage loyalty and provide a smooth journey from the initial desire to purchase to sealing the deal.

For architects and interior retail designers, fast food retail design poses a number of challenges that need to be addressed in order to reinforce the new brand challenges that retailers are faced with.

The following provides a summary of some of those challenges:

Food Preparation – Providing more visibility of food preparation areas, including open plan kitchen areas. This requires a practical but also visibly more pleasant food area which is well lit, well organised and efficient. Specialist kitchen design that takes into account the food cooking and preparation process is called for, requiring designers and architects to work closely with a retailer to create kitchen layout plans that allow the food preparation process to remain efficient while remaining visibly pleasing and pleasant for customer to see.

The Eating in Experience – The need to provide an efficient seating arrangement, with comfortable seats, while also paying close attention to retail lighting plans and retail flooring plans is so important as it allows customers to feel that they can stay for while, this is in sharp contrast to early fast food restaurants where seating was designed to become uncomfortable after fifteen minutes, encouraging people to leave the outlet.

Fixture and Fitting Selection – Interior retail designers also need to focus on other consumer needs such as power points, interactive devices for children and adding artwork that reinforces the message about the ‘fresh food element’ – all important elements that the brand is trying to deliver.

Interactive Ordering Solutions – Retailers are also incorporating electronic ordering stations into their layouts to allow customers to select and pay for their order without speaking to a member of staff. This requires less staff of course but it also calls for the need to design a retail layout that allows for interactive kiosks that are strategically located within the design of the outlet.

Improved Washroom Facilities – Retail designs and architects have to design washroom facilities that meet brand expectations. The facilities that they specify have to reinforce the brand while maintaining a high degree of cleanliness or even ‘self-cleaning’ facilities. The retail design drawings that they create for plumbing and waste have to take into account today’s environmentally.

Back of House and Waste – Customers are not happy enough with the experience that they can see and feel, they also want to know how fast food chains are managing their staff facilities, their food storage and their waste, including the customer’s own packaging waste. A store design is not complete without attention to how these aspects are added to the design of the outlet and how they are managed efficiently and fairly and therefore they are also an important part of the design team’s responsibilities.

The designers challenge is therefore vast and rather than allowing for the production of the design using traditional 2D plans and elevations. The only way to manage and communicate the design process as well as manage changes requested by stakeholders throughout the process, is to use modern design tools such as Revit Architecture to create retail BIM models so that they can create a design that is easily changeable and manageable. Retail BIM modelling also allows for the use and re-usability of Revit families and models that can be used for subsequent stores and therefore ensure some brand consistency as well as design efficiency. Once created, these retail BIM models will also allow the creation of 3d retail images and 3d rendered perspective for retail interiors as well as retail exteriors. These are an important and effective way of communicating the store or outlet design during the various design stages that a designer is responsible for.

Whilst the challenge for fast food retail is to provide food quicker and cheaper than other options, there is good reason to elevate the importance of the store design and how that will affect and ultimately promote the overall brand experience for fast food retail now and well into the future. Managing that design process and the multitude of design inputs is a collaborative and involved process and is one that is served by a designer that is prepared to use CAD and BIM technology as the backbone for delivering a design solution that is easy to create, manage, share and communicate.